History of Caphiria
The history of Caphiria has been among the most influential to the modern world, from the spread of the Latin language and Romance languages as a result to the creation of the Imperial Church to its vast contributions to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language, and society.
Caphiravian history is traditionally divided into eight distinct historical eras:
- The Prehistoric era, covering Caphiria's earliest inhabitants and the establishment of the Latinic people.
- The Kingdom era, covering the formation of the city-state of Caphiria and characterized by a monarchical form of government in which according to tradition, Lanintius was the first of nine Kings.
- The Republic era, which commenced in 511 BCE when kings were replaced with rule by elected senators. The period was marked by vast expansion of Caphiravian trritory, regional dominance, and eventually over the entire Ecinis Sea and parts of the Kindreds Sea and Great Lakes.
- The Principate era, marked by a series of civil wars and internal political conflict, centers around the reorganization of the Republic and creation of the Constitution of Caphiria. This era also marks the early stages of the city-state evolving into a proper empire, with vast territorial holdings, hegemony over Latium, and was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.
- The Civil War era, covers a dozen or so civil wars that took place over a period of four decades as contention for leadership and political groups vied for control over the massive and wealthy state. The most famous of these was between Marius Oratonius and Quinus Sator Alercius and the subsequent war between their successors and die hard loyalists. This led to the state splitting into two: a monarchy in the north and a republic in the south.
- The Pontificate era, which is divided into two unequal parts, begins with the reunification of the state into the Imperium, a hybrid political system that solved the crisis of the civil war. This era also marks the combination of the secular and religious authorities, creating a caesaropapist form of government, which meant emperors were regarded as greater than other mortals, though not quite as deities. As time went on, the identity of the imperatorship with the papacy became less clear and after a peaceful coup, the emperor became recognized more for his legal authority, rather than his religious one.
- The Dominate era is marked by its cultural and political achievement, becoming the symbol of artistic and cultural influence. This period is characterized by the rediscovery of classical Latin philosophy which encouraged a new thinking that became manifested in art, architecture, politics, science and literature. This era marks the transition from the Middle Ages to modern Caphiria.
- The Mandatum era, covers the 18th century to present day. This period can be characterized as the shift from regional hegemon to global superpower. Caphiria played a major role in the Great War, notably as the first nation to use nuclear weaponry. Kiravia and Caphiria emerged as superpowers following the end of the 20th century and has maintained a mostly friendly relationship with it, confronting indirectly during the Space race, proxy wars, and propaganda campaigns.
For more information, and the history of Caphiria as a complete civilization, see Ancient Caphiria.
There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Caphiriavian area from at least 5,000 years, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites. The evidence suggesting the city's ancient foundation is also obscured by the legend of Caphiria myth involving a mythical giant eagle raising an abandoned child.
The traditional date for the founding of Caphiria is 800 BC and the city and surrounding region of Latium has continued to be inhabited with little interruption since around that time. Excavations made in 2024 have revealed a wall built long before the city's official founding year. Archaeologists uncovered a stone wall and pieces of ottery dating to the 9th century BC and the beginning of the 8th century BC, and there is evidence of people arriving on the Davoh hill as early as the 10th century BC. The site of Habernium is crucial for understanding the related processes of monumentalization, urbanization, and state formation in Caphiria in the late Archaic period. The Habernium temple site dates to 7th-6th century B.C., making these the oldest known temple remains in Caphiria.
The region that would become Latium had been home to settled agricultural populations since the early Bronze Age and was known to the other civilizations at the time. The name is most likely derived from the Latin word latus, meaning "wide", expressing the idea of "flat land" (in contrast to the southern high country) but the name may originate from an earlier one.